Cara membuat koneksi Visual Basic 6.0 ke SQL 2000

Cara membuat Koneksi Visual basic 6.0 ke SQL 2000

10 tips untuk mengamankan komputer setelah Install atau format ulang dengan manggunakan sistem operasi Windows

Berikut ini adalah 10 tips  penting yang perlu diperhatikan jika anda selesai menginstall atau format ulang PC dengan menggunakan sistem operasi (OS) Windows, tips ini dapat  menjadi pedoman untuk keselamatan dan keamanan komputer anda.

  1. Instal  antivirus program. Antivirus dapat anda pilih sesuai dengan keinginan dan yang dirasa paling bisa mengakomidir dengan kebutuhan anda, anda bisa memilih salah satu yang tertera dibawah :

    2.  Instal anti-parasite program.

      3.   Install an anti-trojan program.

      4        Instal Patch / Update yang diberikan oleh Microsoft

      5        Instal email client yang lain bukan bawaan dari Microsoft

      6        Instal Internet browser yang berbeda

      7        Instal Firewall yang berupa hardware bukan software

      8         Ubah pengaturan sistem.

      • Hapus akun Admin
      • Setup Account pengguna
      • Nonaktifkan layanan atau service yang tidak diperlukan

      9        Define aturan penggunaan sistem.

      • Menetapkan aturan download dan pembatasan situs
      • Menetapkan aturan instalasi perangkat lunak

      10    Buatlah Backup dan Restore sistem setelah step 1 sampai 9 dilaksanakan

      sumber : CMC Communication

      How to Blocking Chat Programs

      A lot of people seem to have problems blocking Chat programs, specifically AOL Instant Messenger, MSN Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger and ICQ. Here is some information that may help you cut these programs off at the BorderManager server. Thanks to Kevin Sinclair for his input on the IP subnets and Yahoo Messenger on this.

      Background:

      Chat programs are very popular, and many are designed to be ‘easy to use’. In order to be easy to use, they are designed to work under a wide variety of connectivity conditions, and automatically configure themselves for connection by whatever means is available. This automatic configuration makes it both easy to use, and harder to block, because the programs themselves will go through a trial-and-error sequence of looking for open ports to connect through, and use proxies if possible. Often, proxy settings will be picked up from Internet Explorer, but the programs usually want to make a direct TCP connection to a central server to start.

      The way these programs work is that a connection must be made to a central server, through which communications to other users are established. This is the key to blocking these programs – deny them access to the central servers, and they cannot work.

      A 3-Pronged Approach

      There are three areas to consider when trying to block the programs from accessing their ‘login’ servers.

      1. Filter Outbound Traffic

      This method is the most basic, and used to work well before the programs got more sophisticated. It is ESSENTIAL to have at least the BorderManager default filters installed and enabled! The default filters WILL BLOCK ALL of these programs when they try to access the Internet, but they will NOT block the programs if those programs use your proxy server. You have a problem only if you have not installed the filters (use LOAD BRDCFG to do so), are not running the filters, or you have set up exceptions that allow traffic. The problem I see lately is that most firewalls do allow some outbound traffic through filter exceptions, and the newer chat programs (like AOL Instant Messenger) will do port scans on many ports and often find openings.

      If you do not feel comfortable working with filter exceptions, call in a consultant who does, or learn about filtering yourself – here’s a link to my book on configuring filters and exceptions for BorderManager.

      AOL Instant Messenger, as of Feb. 2002, will try a wide variety of TCP port numbers, and is quite likely to connect on some port number that is designed to allow some other traffic (such as FTP) if you set up custom filter exceptions. AOL Instant Messenger almost certainly will require you to use method 3 below. MSN Messenger tries to use TCP destination port 1863. Yahoo! Messenger uses port 80. ICQ uses a range of port numbers, defaulting to UDP destination ports 2000-4000, but has so many options it is almost futile to try to figure them out. Recent versions of ICQ (2000b) may default to the AOL port 5190, since AOL bought ICQ.

      All of these programs are revised often enough that you need to research each new version that comes out to see if something has changed. This documentation was written to AOL Instant Messenger version 5.2, MSN Messenger 3.5.0077, and ICQ versions 99a and 2000b.

      Once you have blocked a direct connection, the programs must try to connect via a proxy. The default filters should block all of the Chat programs listed above from connecting by bypassing a proxy. But if you have opened up a port with a filter exception and dynamic NAT, some of these program may make connections through otherwise safe port numbers, like DNS! (See approach number 3 in this case)

      2. Block Access to Login Servers via Proxy

      The programs generally have options to connect behind a firewall by entering proxy information, such as HTTP, SOCKS, or other. Some will pick up the proxy configuration information to try from Internet Explorer settings. Blocking a connection through a proxy is generally pretty easy as all you have to do is enter the proper Deny URL rule. Generally, the only proxy that will be used here is the HTTP Proxy, possibly the Transparent HTTP Proxy.

      The key here is to deny whatever login server is called out in the configuration options for the chat program. Some may show you a configurable entry, while others (like MSN Messenger) hide it.

      Login server names – set up a Deny URL access rule for these sites

      • AOL Instant Messenger: login.oscar.aol.com:443
      • AOL Instant Messenger: login.oscar.aol.com, possibly toc.oscar.aol.com and login.icq.com
      • MSN Messenger: gateway.messenger.hotmail.com (was login.gateway.hotmail.com)
      • ICQ: login.icq.com and http.proxy.icq.com (Was icq.mirabilis.com and login.icq.com previously)
      • Yahoo! Messenger: msg.edit.yahoo.com/*
      • (Yahoo! Messenger: Might also need to block messenger.yahoo.com/*andhttp.pager.yahoo.com/* Be sure to type in the http on that last URL).

      3. Redirect Traffic to Login Servers via Dummy Static Routes

      The first method should stop the usual connection routines, and the second should stop access via a proxy (HTTP or SOCKS), but what if the chat program piggybacks onto a DNS proxy (which ignores access rules) or you have configured filter exceptions to allow outbound traffic on some port that the chat program discovers?

      This is where we, the all-powerful firewall admins, get evil and tricky. We must determine the IP subnet of the login servers, and use a series of static routes to reroute traffic to those subnets to the bit bucket. As long as all traffic to the Internet has to go through the BorderManager server, this method will ALWAYS work. However, it is subject to those login servers staying on those same subnets! If the login servers are relocated to another subnet, this method will have to be updated with new addressing information. This method is also a real sledgehammer approach – you won’t be able to make an exception for the admin (you) to get through and block everyone else.

      A related method here would be to enter dummy DNS entries for the login hosts (such as in the BorderManager HOSTS file and any internal DNS servers), but that is relatively easily countered by someone knowing what the real IP addresses of the login servers are.

      I have two methods for finding out what addresses are being used. The first is to do a DNS lookup using some sort of nslookup program to find addresses for the login hosts (like login.oscar.aol.com). The second is to use a packet sniffer like Ethereal (www.ethereal.com) to capture packets from my PC when I tell the chat program to configure itself. Then I analyze the requests made from my PC to see what the chat program is trying to do.

      Entering a static route in NetWare:

      LOAD INETCFG, go to Protocols, TCP/IP, and go into LAN Static Routing Table. Make entries for Network with the network numbers listed below, using a next hop of an IP address that is within a network directly attached to the BorderManager server. (Don’t use an IP address actually assigned to the server, or 127.0.0.1). For instance, if you have a private IP address of 192.168.1.1 bound to the BorderManager server, you can use a next hop address of 192.168.1.2 through 192.168.1.254 and it should work. If you were to put in an address such as 10.0.0.1 (with no 10.x.x.x network address bound to the server), it will be ignored, and the traffic will still be sent out via the default route.

      To redirect AOL Instant Messenger:

      AOL’s login servers (login.oscar.aol.com, and also login.icq.com) are on these subnets/addresses, as of May 20, 2004:

      • host 64.12.161.153
      • host 64.12.161.185
      • host 64.12.200.89
      • host 205.188.153.121
      • host 205.188.179.233

      AOL’s web-based chat server uses toc.oscar.aol.com, on a variety of addresses in the 64.12.163.0 (255.255.255.0) network.

      I suggest redirecting the following subnets, but this will also likely block AOL entirely, not just instant messenger
      64.12.161.0 (255.255.255.0), 64.12.200.0 (255.255.255.0), 205.188.153.0 (255.255.255.0) and 205.188.179.0 (255.255.255.0)

      To redirect ICQ:

      Redirect the networks (as of May 20, 2004)

      • Same as AOL Instant Messenger

      To redirect MSN Messenger:

      Dec. 3, 2002 – A sysop reports MSN Messenger now uses network address 207.46.96.0, subnet mask 255.255.224.0.

      I tested on Nov. 9, 2001, and there were multiple login servers, where in the past there was only one. By Nov. 29, it appeared that there were login servers at addresses 64.4.13.170 through 64.4.13.190.

      Microsoft may be adding even more in the future. I was still able to block MSN Messenger with just default filter exceptions and the Access Rule listed above, but should a new version of MSN Messenger come out that is able to slip by the proxy rules, try redirecting an entire subnet.
      Redirecting subnet 64.4.13.160 (255.255.255.224) will prevent traffic from reaching all addresses from 64.4.13.161 through 64.4.13.191. (Changing that subnet to 64.4.13.128 and the subnet mask to 255.255.255.128 would expand the blocking to 64.4.13.129 through 64.4.13.255).

      To redirect Yahoo! Messenger:

      So far I have not had to redirect Yahoo! Messenger, but simply used an Access Rule as listed above (like MSN Messenger). However, a reader reports the following addresses in use on Nov. 29, 2001, should you want to try the redirection technique.

      csXX.msg.yahoo.com Series
      216.136.175.143-145
      216.136.225.83-48
      216.136.225.12
      csXX.msg.sc5.yahoo.com Series
      216.136.226.209-210
      216.136.227.166-167

      Finding Out How A Program Gets Through HTTP Proxy

      Here’s one technique I use to find out what needs to be blocked. I used this to track down what Yahoo Messenger was connecting to, so I could set up access rules to block it.

      1. Use a user account that doesn’t have a lot of traffic, or is set up just for this test. This is so you can easily see what is being accessed in your testing.
      2. Enable proxy authentication. This is so that the user account you are testing with shows up in the logs.
      3. Set up an Allow All URL access rule at the top of the rules list, with Source = the NDS user account you are testing with. Enable rule logging.
      4. Connect to the web site/service. (For Yahoo Messenger, try to login.)
      5. Check the Access Rule logs for the last 30 minutes or so to see what was allowed, find the test user account, double-click on it, and look at the URL’s.
      6. Set up a Deny URL rule right above the Allow URL for the test user, enable logging on it, and enter a URL to deny. Wildcards are allowed.
      7. Test again. If the Deny rule worked, you will see that in the Access Rule logs. If the login worked, the software may have tried a second option you also have to deny, or your Deny rule may have the wrong syntax. Also, when the access rules deny a site, you should see, in the Proxy Console screen on the BorderManager server, an immediate increase in the “Failed” statistic.

      Source : Novell Public Forums, BorderManager sections

      Cara mengcopy data dari Computer ke CD menggunakan “Nero StartSmart”

      1. Masukan CD ke CD Rom
      2. Click  Nero StartSmart Icon dari Layar Computer.
      3. Pilih Data ~ click Make Data Disc
      4. Kemudian akan tampil Informasi / content dari disc yang telah dimasukan ke dalam CD Rom
      5. Pilik Add, untuk menambah data ke dalam CD
      6. Tunjukanlah ke lokasi dimana File yang akan di copy tersimpan
      7. Kemudian pilih Folder atau File yang akan di copy dan Click Add dikanan bawah kemudian di ikuti memilih Finished dan layer akan kembali ke CD Content
      8. Click  NEXT di kanan bawah, kemudian Click BURN dan tunggu sampai process selesai.
      9. Dilayar akan tampil Informasi bahwa proses Burn telah selesai di lakukan , kemudian click Ok
      10. Kemudian Click ‘NEXT’ maka proses copy/Burn selesai
      11. Click ‘Exit’ untuk keluar dari Nero StartSmart

      Apa yang dimaksud dengan RAID ?

      Dalam komputer, singkatan RAID (redundant array awalnya disk murah, sekarang juga dikenal sebagai independen redundant array disk) merujuk pada skema penyimpanan data menggunakan beberapa hard drive untuk berbagi atau replikasi data antara drive. Tergantung pada konfigurasi RAID (biasanya disebut sebagai tingkat RAID), manfaat dari RAID adalah untuk meningkatkan integritas data, kesalahan-toleransi, throughput atau kapasitas, dibandingkan dengan drive tunggal. Dalam implementasi asli, keuntungan utamanya adalah kemampuan untuk menggabungkan beberapa perangkat biaya rendah yang menggunakan teknologi yang lebih tua ke dalam sebuah array yang menawarkan kapasitas yang lebih besar, keandalan, kecepatan, atau kombinasi dari hal-hal ini, daripada yang terjangkau tersedia dalam satu perangkat menggunakan teknologi terbaru

      Dengan kata lain fungsi RAID adalah penggabungan beberapa harddisk menjadi satu logical unit atau satu volume

      Raid Levels
      1. RAID O.
      Arti : Keseluruhan harddisk yang dimiliki akan berfungsi sebagai tempat penyimpanan data. dengan kata lain data yang kita simpan kedalam harddisk akan di stripping keseluruh harddisk anggota dari RAID 0 tersebut.
      Contoh : 4 Harddisk SCSI berkapasistas 72GB per Disk di configure dengan RAID 0 maka total harddisk yang dapat dijadikan penyimpanan data adalah keseluruhannya ( 4 x 72 GB)
      Kelebihan : Dengan RAID 0, kapasistas harddisk yang dimiliki untuk penyimpanan data adalah total dari keseluruhan harddisk yang dimiliki, tanpa ada pengurangan
      Kekurangan : Jika salah satu harddisk fails dalam RAID 0, maka data akan hilang tanpa ada penggantinya.

      2. RAID 1
      Arti : Harddisk dalam RAID 1 dapat diartikan sebagai mirroring, karena setengah dari jumlah Harddisk yang diposisikan sebagai RAID 1 digunakan sebagai mirror. Dengan kata lain bahwa hanya setengah dari kapasitas Harddisk keseluruhan yang dapat digunakan sebagai penyimpanan data, setengah lagi hanya berfungsi sebagai mirror
      Contoh : 4 Harddisk SCSI berkapasitas 72GB di configure dengan RAID 1, maka hanya 2 Harddisk (2 x 72 GB) yang dapat digunakan sebagai penyimpanan data, dan 2 harddisk lagi (2 x 72GB) lagi digunakan sebagai Mirror dari data tersebut.
      Kelebihan : Jika salah satu Harddisk yang berfungsi sebagai penyimpanan data fails/bermasalah, maka harddisk mirror akan secara otomatis menggantikan fungsinya sampai harddisk yang fails tersebut di ganti dengan yang baru, tanpa penurunan performance dari keseluruhan harddisk.
      Kekurangan : RAID 1 bisa dikatakan MAHAL, karena hanya setengah dari jumlah harddisk yang dimiliki yang dapat dijadikan tempat penyimpanan data.

      3. RAID 1+0
      Arti : Harddisk yang di configure dalam RAID 1+0 bisa dikatakan di striping dan di mirror, dengan kata lain data yang kita simpan dalam harddisk akan di stripping ke anggota dari RAID 1+0 tersebut dan juga setengah dari jumlah harddisk yang ada akan di mirror.
      Contoh : 4 harddisk SCSI berkapasitas 72GB di configure dengan RAID 1+0 maka kapasitas yang dapat di gunakan untuk penyimpanan data adalah 2 x 72 GB dan data yang disimpan akan di stripping atau dibagikan diantara kedua harddisk tersebut. sisa 2 harddisk lagi berdungsi sebagai mirror.
      Kelebihan : bisa dikatakan sama dengan RAID 1 hanya performance dari baca tulis harddisk meningkat dibanding RAID 1
      Kekurangan : MAHAL juga seperti RAID 1

      4. RAID 5
      Arti : Dalam RAID 5 ada pembatasan minimal harddisk yang digunakan, yaitu 4 harddisk, kenapa ? karena dalam sistem RAID 5 ada pembagian data dan parity.
      Contoh : 4 harddisk berkapasitas 72GB akan di configure dengan RAID 5, maka 3 x 72 GB akan berfungsi sebagai penyimpanan data dan 1 x 72 GB menjadi parity.
      Kelebihan : Jika salah satu dari harddisk tersebut fails, fungsi harddisk masih berfungsi.
      Kekurangan : performance akan menurun jika harddisk fails.

      5. RAID 6
      Arti : Dalam RAID 6 juga ada pembatasan minimal harddisk yaitu 5 harddisk. 3 diantaranya akan di jadikan data dan 2 lagi sebagai parity.
      Contoh : 5 harddisk berkapasitas 72GB akan di configure sebagai RAID 6, maka 3 x 72 GB akan berfungsi sebagai penyimpanan data dan 2 x 72GB menjadi parity.
      Kelebihan : dalam RAID 6 maksimal harddisk fails dalam waktu yang bersamaan adalah 2 harddisk. jadi jika 2 harddisk didalam RAID 6 fails, fungsi harddisk masih berjalan.
      Kekurangan : performance akan menurun jika ada harddisk fails.

      How Outlook helps to protect your computer from viruses

      What is a virus?

      Computer viruses attack the software of a computer, not the hardware. The basic definition of a virus is a program that copies itself. Most common viruses are small programs that need to use a legitimate program or file in order to run. Most viruses today are written with malicious intent; as a result, they can cause damage to programs or data. Because the virus code must be run to have any effect, the files that the computer treats as pure data, such as .txt files, are safe. For example, reading a plain-text e-mail message won’t infect your computer with a virus.

      In order to run, the virus code has to be written in an executable form, such as an .exe program file. HTML-format and RTF-format e-mail messages or Web pages that contain Microsoft ActiveX® controls or scripts, such as Microsoft Visual Basic® Scripting Edition (VBScript), Microsoft JScript®, or other types of embedded program code, can harbor virus programs that run when you open a message or view a Web page. Opening e-mail attachments can also infect your computer with viruses. Some malicious files can be constructed to take advantage of known vulnerabilities in the software in order to run destructive code. Microsoft recommends that you protect your computer by applying all updates and patches for the software on your computer.

      Macro viruses

      A macro is a series of commands and instructions that are grouped together as a single command to accomplish a task automatically. If you perform a task repeatedly in an application, you can automate the task by using a macro. You can store macros in documents, worksheets, or templates, which makes them available whenever a new file based on that template is created. For example, Microsoft Word stores user-recorded macros in the Normal template (Normal.dot) by default, so that they are available for use with every Word document. When you open the Word document, the macro runs. A macro virus is a virus program written in Microsoft Visual Basic® for Applications, the same macro language used in legitimate macros. A macro virus can also run automatically when you open a document unless there are safeguards in place. Most Microsoft Office programs display a confirmation dialog box when you choose to open a document that contains macros.

      How do viruses spread?

      The Melissa virus in March 1999 spread in the form of an e-mail message with an attached Word document that contained a macro virus. Anyone who opened the attachment triggered the virus. The virus would then send the document (and therefore itself) in an e-mail message to the first 50 people in the person’s address book. The e-mail message contained a friendly note that included the person’s name, so the recipient would open the document, thinking it was harmless. The virus would then create 50 new messages from the recipient’s address book. As a result, the Melissa virus was the fastest-spreading virus ever seen and forced a number of large companies to shut down their e-mail systems.

      The important thing to remember is that just because an e-mail message appears to come from someone you trust, this does not mean the file is safe or that the sender had anything to do with it. Also, keep in mind that when you share files with another user, the attached macro or script is included with the file. Therefore, be careful when you share files, and scan the files with an antivirus program before you open them. You can choose from many antivirus application vendors.

      Important Before you scan Outlook e-mail messages, check with the antivirus program vendor to make sure it is compatible with Outlook. Some antivirus programs can cause problems with Outlook.

      Outlook security features

      Outlook is designed to help protect your computer from viruses and junk e-mail messages. The following information focuses on the virus protection features in Outlook.

      Macro security

      Outlook itself cannot detect whether a virus is present. Macro viruses are spread through attachments, not the e-mail message itself. Microsoft Office achieves macro virus protection by using the High macro security setting as the default. With the High setting, you can run only digitally signed macros from trusted sources or macros that you created yourself, as long as the installed add-ins and templates are trusted. Unsigned macros are automatically disabled.

      Note Signing a macro is similar to getting a legal document notarized by a legal authority or getting your passport stamped by a government official. Electronic certificates are used to sign the macro code. Certificates are issued by a certificate authority, such as a bank, government, or software company, which should be trusted sources. For example, all macros that are pre-installed with Office are signed by the developers who created them using certificates issued by Microsoft that vouch for their authenticity.

      If you change the macro security level to the less secure Medium setting, you automatically receive a warning each time you open a document that contains a macro. You can select an option in the Security Warning dialog box about whether to run the macro. Disable Macros is the default button.

      Note If the security setting is set to Low, Outlook will not warn you before running a macro. Therefore, all macros are run automatically without your intervention. Because of the potential security risk, Microsoft does not recommend that you use the Low setting.

      Address Book security

      The Outlook Address Book is guarded programmatically. This helps to prevent another program from automatically accessing your Address Book or Contacts list or from sending messages on your behalf without your permission. It is very useful to allow some programs (like Microsoft ActiveSync® or Palm Desktop) to access your contact information so that you can synchronize your personal digital assistant (PDA). However, a virus or other malicious program file can use the same functionality to propagate itself. If a program attempts to access your Address Book, a warning appears on screen.

      This message appears if a program tries to access your Address Book. In general, you cannot prevent this caution from appearing. However, check with your synchronization software vendor to see if recent updates to the vendor’s software include interacting with Outlook in a trusted manner. This message is not displayed when Outlook interacts with trusted synchronization software.

      • Unless you clicked a command or started a program that is expected to interact with Outlook Address Book information or if you are just not sure, click No.
      • If you clicked a command or started a program that is expected to interact with Outlook Address Book information, select the Allow access for check box, and then specify the amount of time you grant access for.

      Attachment security

      To prevent the spread of viruses from program files (considered a Level 1 threat), Outlook automatically blocks attachments that contain file types that can run programs. These blocked file types include .exe, .bat, .com, .vbs, and .js. Your Inbox displays the paperclip icon in the Attachment column to let you know that the message has an attachment. A list of the blocked attachment files appears in the InfoBar at the top of the message.

      If you try to send an attachment that has a file type extension that is on the Level 1 restricted list, you receive a message that other Outlook users may not be able to access this type of attachment.

      Only an e-mail server administrator can change this default setting and unblock certain file types. This setting is often used on an organization’s intranet, not on the Internet.

      Data files, such as .doc, .xls, .ppt, and .txt files, are not blocked. However, you receive an Opening Mail Attachment message when you try to open an attachment.

      This message gives you the opportunity to consider the safety of the file you are opening and a chance to save the file and scan it for viruses before opening it.

      To be able to send any file type by using e-mail, you can use a third-party program, such as WinZip, to package files before you attach them to your e-mail message. WinZip can create a new Outlook message and attach the .zip package for you.

      In your message, you can include instructions explaining how to extract the files from the package to make it easy for recipients to access the files.

      HTML and RTF message security

      To help protect you from viruses that might be contained in HTML-format and RTF-format messages, both scripts and ActiveX controls contained in these kinds of messages are deactivated automatically, regardless of the security zone setting. This is because Outlook places all incoming messages in the Restricted Sites security zone by default. The default setting for the Restricted Sites zone is High. This disables automatic scripting and prevents ActiveX controls from opening without permission.

      Changing the zone setting to something other than the default is not recommended.

      If you need to run the script on an individual message when the security zone is set to Restricted Sites, you can work around the default protection by following these steps:

      1. Open the message.
      2. On the View menu, click View in Internet Zone.
      3. Click Yes when you are prompted about running the script.

      You can now run the script.

      Summary

      Outlook has several key virus-protection features in place, with the safest levels used as the default. These features help protect against macro viruses in attachments, unauthorized access to your Address Book by a hacker’s program, and potential viruses in scripts embedded within HTML-format and RTF-format messages. These safeguards, including the ones recommended as every day best practices, will greatly help to make sure that you have a virus-free day.

      Source : Microsoft

      Apa itu Komputer ?

      Apaitu Komputer ?

      Sejarah

      Disiplin Ilmu Komputer sudah muncul sejak era tahun 1940, seiring dengan berpadunya teori algoritma dan logika matematika, serta ditemukannya komputer elektronik dengan kemampuan penyimpanan program. Adalah Alan Turing dan Kurt Godel, yang pada tahun 1930-an berhasil memadukan algoritma, logika, dan penghitungan matematika serta merealisasikannya dalam sebuah alat atau rule system. Prinsip algoritma yang digunakan adalah dari Ada Lovelace, yang dikembangkan 60 tahun sebelumnya.

      Penemu algoritma sendiri yang tercatat dalam sejarah awal adalah dari seorang yang bernama Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Musa al Khwarizmi. Al Khwarizmi adalah seorang ahli matematika dari Uzbekistan yang hidup di masa tahun 770-840 masehi. Di literatur barat ia lebih terkenal dengan sebutan Algorizm. Kata algoritma sendiri berasal dari sebutannya ini. Sedangkan komputer analog diciptakan oleh Vannevar Bush pada tahun 1920, dan disusul dengan komputer elektronik yang dikembangkan oleh Howard Aiken dan Konrad Zuse tahun 1930.

      Kemudian John Von Neumann mendemonstrasikan salah satu karya fenomenalnya pada tahun 1945, yaitu sebuah arsitektur komputer yang disebut “von Neumann machine”, dimana program disimpan di memori. Arsitektur komputer inilah yang kemudian digunakan oleh komputer modern sampai sekarang.

      Tahun 1960 adalah babak baru dimulainya formalisasi Ilmu Komputer. Jurusan Ilmu Komputer pada universitas-universitas mulai marak dibangun. Disiplin ilmu baru ini kemudian terkenal dengan sebutan Ilmu Komputer (Computer Science), Teknik Komputer (Computer Engineering), Komputing (Computing), atau Informatika (Informatics).

      Definisi

      Seiring dengan perkembangan Ilmu Komputer, dewasa ini banyak sekali peneliti yang mencoba membuat kajian dan melakukan pendefinisian terhadap Ilmu Komputer. Bagaimanapun juga, dasar Ilmu Komputer adalah matematika dan engineering (teknik). Matematika menyumbangkan metode analisa, dan engineering menyumbangkan metode desain pada bidang ini.

      CSAB [3] (Computing Sciences Accreditation Board, http://www.csab.org) membuat definisi menarik tentang Ilmu Komputer:

      Ilmu Komputer adalah ilmu pengetahuan yang berhubungan dengan komputer dan komputasi. Di dalamnya terdapat teoritika, eksperimen, dan pendesainan komponen, serta termasuk didalamnya hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan:

      1. 1. Teori-teori untuk memahami komputer device, program, dan sistem
      2. 2. Eksperimen untuk pengembangan dan pengetesan konsep
      3. 3. Metodologi desain, algoritma, dan tool untuk merealisasikannya
      4. 4. Metode analisa untuk melakukan pembuktian bahwa realisasi sudah sesuai dengan requirement yang diminta

      Beberapa definisi lain yang lebih abstrak adalah:

      Ilmu Komputer adalah ilmu yang mempelajari tentang representasi pengatahuan (knowledge representation) dan implementasinya.
      ataupun definisi
      Ilmu Komputer adalah ilmu yang mempelajari tentang abstraksi dan bagaimana mengendalikan kekompleksan.

      Denning mendefinisikan Ilmu Komputer dalam makalahnya yang cukup terkenal tentang disiplin ilmu komputer [1]. Makalah ini adalah laporan akhir dari proyek dan task force tentang the Core of Computer Science yang dibentuk oleh dua society ilmiah terbesar bidang komputer, yaitu ACM [4] (http://acm.org) dan IEEE Computer Society [5] (http://computer.org).

      Ilmu Komputer adalah studi sistematik tentang proses algoritmik yang mengjelaskan dan mentrasformasikan informasi: baik itu berhubungan dengan teori-teori, analisa, desain, efisiensi, implementasi, ataupun aplikasi-aplikasi yang ada padanya. Pertanyaan mendasar berhubungan dengan Ilmu Komputer adalah, “Apa yang bisa diotomatisasikan secara efisien”.

      Kita bisa simpulkan dari persamaan pemakaian terminologi dan hakekat makna dalam definisi yang digunakan para peneliti diatas, bahwa:

      Ilmu Komputer adalah ilmu pengetahuan yang berisi tentang teori, metodologi, desain dan implementasi, berhubungan dengan komputasi, komputer, dan algoritmanya dalam perspektif perangkat lunak (software) maupun perangkat keras (hardware).

      Persepsi Yang Salah Tentang Ilmu Komputer

      Beberapa persepsi yang salah kaprah tentang Ilmu Komputer bisa kita rangkumkan seperti dibawah:

      • Ilmu Komputer adalah ilmu yang mempelajari tentang komputer. Ilmu Komputer bukanlah ilmu yang hanya mempelajari tentang komputer, seperti juga ilmu astronomi yang bukan ilmu tentang teleskop, atau ilmu biologi adalah juga bukan ilmu yang hanya mempelajari tentang mikroskop. Komputer, teleskop dan mikroskop adalah alat dari ilmu, dan bukan ilmu itu sendiri.
      • Ilmu Komputer adalah ilmu yang mempelajari tentang bagaimana menulis program komputer.
      • Ilmu Komputer adalah ilmu yang mempelajari tentang pengunaan aplikasi-aplikasi komputer